初一、初二、初三英语上册(人教版)重点语法,记得mark起来!

真人英语2020-09-27 16:54:06

初一英语上册重点语法总结


名词:所有事物的名称

1,名词的种类:

专有名词:首字母大写(山脉,河流,国家等)China

普通名词:首字母不大写(普通的事物的名称)desk ,pen

2,名词的数:

可数名词:可以数的名词(有单复数)ruler,pen,pencil

不可数名词:不可以数的名词(没有单复数)bread,meat,water,

可数名词变化规则

1,一般加s,例如:pen---pens

2,以s,sh,ch,x结尾加es,例如:bus—buses,brush—brushes,watch—watches,box—boxes

3,以辅音字母加y结尾,去掉y为I 加es 例如:baby---babies

4,以f,fe 结尾,去掉f,fe 加ves life---lives, leaf---leaves

5,以有生命的o 结尾加es 例如:hero---heroes,tomato---tomatoes,potato---potatoes,mango---mangoes

6,复合名词遇见man,woman两个词时,两个名词都要加复数

A man teacher---two men teachers

不规则的变化

Is,am----are, his,her,its----their,does---do,has---have,his,hers,its---theirs,

Isn’t ---aren’t , I ---we, you---you,me---us,he,she,it---they,him,her,it---them,

Your---your,yours---yours,my---our,mine---ours,that---those,this---these,fish—fish,sheep---sheep,deer---deer,Chinese---Chinese, Japanese---Japanese,man---men,woman—women,tooth---teeth,foot---feet,mouse---mice

单数句变成复数句

This is my book--- These are our books

不可数名词的量化

A cup of 一杯。。。,a glass of 。。。一玻璃杯,a tin of 。。。一听。。。,a can of 。。。一罐。。。,

A box of 。。。一盒子。。。,a bag of 。。。 一包。。。,a bar of 。。。一条。。,a piece of 。。。一片。。。

例如:I have a cup of water 我有一杯水 I have two cups of water 我有两杯水

I have a box of apples 我有一箱苹果,I have two boxes of apples 我有两箱苹果

名词所有格:

人:名词+‘s 或者 名词s +’例如:Tom’s bag, Teachers’ desks

物:名词+of +名词 例如:a bag of my school

双重所有格:s’+of a friend of my father’s

Lily and Lucy’s room 丽丽和露西的房间(共有的)

Lily’s and Lucy’s rooms 丽丽和露西的房间(各自有的)

介词和时间的搭配:

at<on<in

at 点时间, at 7:00 在七点

on 具体日期 on Monday 在星期一

in 年,季节,世纪 in 1998, in July, in this century

介词和地点的搭配

At 具体的地点: at the airport 在机场,at the doctor’s 在医院

On 在平面上,on the farm 在农场上

In 在。。。里面, in the park 在公园里,in Guiyang,在贵阳

There be 句型:某地有某物,(就近原则)

There is a pen and two pencils =There are two pencils and a pen

Ask 。。。about 询问关于

I ask you about my school我询问你关于我的学校

Ask 。。。for 向。。。要。。。

I ask you for some books 我向你要一些书

Thanks for sth 谢谢某物 Thanks for your book 谢谢你的书

Thanks for doing sth 谢谢做某事,Thanks for giving me a book 谢谢你给我一本书

句型转换

肯定句----否定句

有be,be后加not,有情(can),情后加not,没be 和情时,don’t ,doesn’t 来充数,位置放在动词前,动词还原要牢记,doesn’t 跟着他,她,它。

He is happy ---He is not happy

He can run---He can’t run

He likes apples ---He doesn’t like apples

I like bananas ---I don’t like bananas

肯定句---一般疑问句

有be,be 句首,有情(can),情句首,没be 和情时,Do,Does 放句首,动词还原要牢记,Does 跟着他,她,它

He is happy---Is he happy?

He can run ---Can he run ?

He likes apples ----Does he like apples ?

I like bananas ---Do you like bananas ?

Be动词的搭配,am 跟我,are 跟你,单数is ,复数are ,is 跟着他,她,它

I am ,you are ,he is ,she is ,it is ,we are ,they are ,Tom is , Boys are

冠词的用法:

定冠词:the,

不定冠词:a,an

定冠词的用法:

特指:There is a pen on the desk那儿有一支钢笔在书桌上

2,文中第二次提起:

I have a pen ,the pen is blue 我有一支钢笔,这支钢笔是蓝色的。

3,世界上独一无二的事物:The sun is red 太阳是红色的

4,在西洋乐器前,I can play the piano我能弹钢琴

5,在姓氏复数前,表示一家人 The Greens 格林一家

6,形容词前,表示一类事物, The young are happy年亲人很开心

7,形容词的最高级: He is the tallest boy 他是最高的男孩

8,序数词前:The second boy is Peter 第二个男孩是皮特

9,部分专有名词:The Great Wall 长城

不定冠词的用法

辅音用a,元音用an,可数单数才用它

A pen, an orange , an apple , an egg , an ice cream ,an umbrella ,a useful book ,a“u”,an “F”,an“L”,an“M”,an“N”,an“x”,an“s”

不用冠词:

1,一日三餐前: I have lunch 我吃中餐

2,球类,棋类, I play chess 我下象棋, Iplayfootball我踢足球

3,星期 I go to school on Monday 我在星期一去上学

4,月份: Children’s Day is in June儿童节在六月

5,年份 He was born in2002他出生于2002年

6,节日前: On Teachers’ Day 在教师节

7,学科前:I have math class 我上数学课

8,语言:I speak English well 我说英语很好

代词:

人称代词:

主格:I you he she it they we

我 你/你们 他 她 它 他们/她们/它们 我们

宾格:me you him her it them us

位置:主在前,宾在后,介词,动词在中间

I like apples 我喜欢苹果

My teacher likes me 我的老师喜欢我

物主代词:

形容词性物主代词:my your his her its our their 我的 你的/你们的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 他们的

名词性物主代词 mine yours his hers its ours theirs

位置:形物放在名词前,名物放在动两边

My book is here 我的书在这里

Mine is good 我的很好

I like yours 我喜欢你的

Many 和much 的区别

I have many books 我有许多书(可数名词复数)

I have much water我有许多水(不可数名词)

How much is the book?这本书多少钱?(价钱)

Some和any 的区别

I have some books 我有一些书(肯定句)

Do you have any books ?你有书吗?(疑问句)

Idon’t have any books 我没有书(否定句)

Can I have some water ?我能喝些水吗?(请求)

数词

序数词:first,second ,third (有顺序的数词)

基数词:one ,two,three(基本的数字的词语)

基数词---序数词:

One---first,two---second ,three---third,four---fourth,five---fifth,eight---eighth,nine---ninth

Twelve---twelfth,twenty---twentieth,twenty—one---twenty-first

基数词+名词复数: I have two books 我有两本书

序数词+名词单数:He is the third boy 他是第三个男孩


初二英语上册重点语法总结


形容词:放在名词前,修饰名词例如:beautiful 美丽的。It’s a beautiful map 它是一张漂亮的地图

副词:放在动词后,修饰动词例如:fast 快, He runs fast 他跑得很快。

形容词前面, He is really good 他是真真地很好

形容词和副词级的变化规则

口诀:长加前,短加后,长前加more ,most ,短后er,est,

长加前:

The book is as interesting as that one 这本书和那本书一样有趣

The book is much more interesting than that one 这本书比那本书有趣得多

The book is a little more interesting than that one 这本书比那本书有趣一点点

The book is even more interesting than that one 这本书甚至比那本书更加的有趣

短加后。

一般直接加er,est,

He is taller 他更高,

He is the tallest 他最高

以重读闭音节结尾,双写最后一个辅音字母,并且加er,est

例如:thin---thinner---thinnest

He is thinner 他更瘦

He is the thinnest 他最瘦

以不发音的e结尾加r,st

例如:nice—nicer---nicest

It’s nicer 它更加美好

It’s the nicest 它是最美好的

以辅音字母加y 结尾,去掉y加ier,iest

early---earlier----earliest

He gets up earlier 他起床更早

He gets up earliest 他起床最早

不规则的级的变化:

bad----worse---worst (坏的)

ill---worse---worst(生病的)

many---more---most (很多)

much---more---most(很多)

good---better---best(好的)

well----better---best(好的)

old----elder/older---eldest/oldest(老的)

far---farther/further---farthest/further(远的)

little---less---least(少的)

级的变化的标志:

原级: as 。。。。as 和。。。一样。He is as tall as me 他和我一样高。

比较级:than,比,much很多,a little一点,even甚至

He is much taller than me 他比我高很多

He is even taller 他甚至更高

He is a little taller 他只是高一点点

He is taller than me = I am not as/so tall as him 他比我高

最高级:the ,of ,

He is the tallest of all boys 他是所有男孩中最高的

He is the tallest in my class 他在我的班里是最高的

级的使用方式:

1,比较级+and +比较级,越来越。。。

He is taller and taller 他是越来越高了

the +比较级,the +比较级,越。。。,越。。。。

The more you learn ,the better you will be 你学习越多,你就越好

He is taller than any other student in my is the tallest student in my class 他在我的班里是最高的学生

一般将来时:将来将要发生的动作或者状态

结构:will/shall(第一人称疑问句)+动词原形(无计划,自然发生)

结构2:be(am,is ,are)+going to do (打算做某事,有计划)

标志词:tomorrow明天,in+时间段(。。。之后),in the future 在将来,following +时间段(接下来的。。。),

He will go to Beijing tomorrow 明天他将要去北京

=He is going to Beijing tomorrow

He will be better in the future 将来他将会更好

He will play football in the following week

=He is going to play football in the following week 他将会在接下来的一周里踢足球

宾语从句:从句在复合句里冲淡宾语的句子

例如:

I don’t know where you are 我不知道你在哪里(陈述语气)

I want to know if you are right 我想要知道你是否是对的

He told me the earth is round 他告诉我地球是圆的

动词不定式:to +动词原形+sth

做主语的时候:

It is good to study English well 学习英语好是很好的事情

=To study English well is good

做宾语的时候:动词词组:动词+to do sth

I want to do housework 我想要做家务

做补语的时候:

I ask you to do homework 我叫你去写作业

I believe it good to learn English well 我相信学好英语是很好的

I think it good to learn English well 我认为学好英语是很好的

I find it good to learn English well 我发现学好英语是很好的

I discover it good to learn English well 我发现学好英语是很好

I feel it good to learn English well 我感觉学好英语是很好的

I make it good to learn English well 我使得学好英语是很好的

邀请和应答:

Would you like some milk ?你想要一些牛奶么?

Would you like something to eat ?你想要吃一些东西么?

回答:Yes,I’d love to 是的,我很想。 Sure=certainly =of course,当然,I’d love to 我想要。

Sorry ,I can’t 对不起,我不能

Sorry ,I am afraid not 对不起,我恐怕不行


初三英语全一册重点语法总结


一般现在时:经常或习惯性的动作或者状态

结构:主语+动词原形/动词现三单形式 +宾语

I like apples 我喜欢苹果 He likes apples 他喜欢苹果

标志词:everyday 每天,usually 通常,always 一直,sometimes 有时,often经常

动词现三单变化的规则:

一般+s ,例如:play---plays

以sh,ch,x,s 结尾加es,例如;wash—washes ,fix---fixes,pass---passes,catch---catches

以辅音+y 结尾,去掉y + ies,例如:study ---studies

2,一般过去时:过去经常或者习惯性的动作或状态

结构:动词过去式+宾语

标志词:yesterday(昨天),last+时间(上一个。。),just now (刚才),ago(以前)

I played football yesterday 我昨天踢足球

动词过去式的变化规则:

一般+ed, play –played

以辅音字母+y结尾,去掉 y 为ied, study—studied

以重读闭音节结尾,双鞋最后一个辅音字母节加ed(三明治结尾),stop—stopped

以不发音的e结尾 +d ,move—moved

不规则动词过去式表格:

3,现在进行时:此时此刻正在进行的动作或者状态

结构:Be(am,is ,are)+动词ing(现在分词)

标志词:now(现在),at the moment(此刻),at once (立刻),right away(立刻)

He is reading ,now 他现在正在阅读

现在分词(动词ing)的变化规则

一般+ing,play—playing

以不发音e 结尾,去掉e +ing, ride---riding

3,以重读闭音节结尾(三明治结尾),双鞋最后一个辅音字母+ing, stop—stopping

以ie结尾,改为y+ing,例如:lie—lying ,die—dying,tie—tying,

一般将来时:将要发生的动作或者状态

结构: will/ shall(第一人称疑问句)+动词原形

Be going to +动词原形

标志词:tomorrow 明天,next +时间(下一个。。。),in +时间段(在。。。之后),following +时间(接下来的。。。)

I will go to school tomorrow 我将要明天去上学

Shall I go to school tomorrow 我明天将要去上学?

Shall we go shopping tomorrow ?我们明天将要去购物?

I am going to play football next week 我下周将要去踢足球

5,过去进行时:过去某时,某段时间正在进行的动作或者状态

结构:Be(were,was)+动词ing(动词现在分词)

标志词:at that moment 在那个时刻, at seven yesterday evening 昨天晚上七点(过去某个时刻),

He was reading books at that moment 在那个时刻,他正在读书

现在完成时:过去的动作,对现在造成的影响

结构:have /has +动词过去分词

标志词: already 已经(肯定句),yet,还没有(否定句,疑问句),never从不,ever曾经,for +时间段,完成时 +since +过去时,

I have already finished my work我已经完成了我的工作

过去我分词的常规变化和过去式是一样的。

7,过去完成时:过去的过去发生的动作,对过去发生的影响

结构:had +动词过去分词

标志词:by the time 在。。。之前,其他的标志词和现在完成时一样

By the time I got there ,The car had gone 在我到达那里之前,小汽车已经离开了

8,过去将来时:过去将来时:过去对将来的打算

结构:would +动词原形,were+宾语

例如:I would help you, if I were (过去将来时里,没有was形式,因为是一个比拟,猜测)a rich man。如果我是一个有钱人,我会帮助你的

If I had done it ,I would be successful 如果我已经做到了,我将会成功

9,被动语态:Be +done (动词过去分词)

一般现在时:am/is/are +done(动词过去分词) It is played

一般过去时:was/were+done(动词过去分词) It was played

一般将来时: will be done(动词过去分词) It will be played

Be going to be done (动词过去分词),It is going to be played

现在进行时:Be(am/is/are)+being done(动词过去分词) It is being played

过去进行时:Be(was/were)+being done(动词过去分词) ,It was being played

现在完成时:have/has been done(动词过去分词) ,It has been played

过去完成时:had been done(动词过去分词) It had been played

过去将来时: would be done(动词过去分词), It would be played

情态动词:情态动词 +be +done(动词过去分词) It can be played

宾语从句:从句在复合句中做宾语,(连接词通常在动词后面),

I know that you are right 我知道你是对的

I don’t know if you are right 我不知道你是否是正确的

I want to know where I can find the bookstore 我想要知道我在哪里能找到书店

I want to know when I can go to school 我想要知道什么时候我能去上学

I don’t know which one is yours 我不知道哪一个是你的

I want to know what it is 我想要知道它是什么

I want to know who he is我想要知道他是谁

He didn’t know the earth is round 他不知道地球是圆的(事实真理,时态要用一般现在时)

I wanted to know how you got it 我想要知道你是如何得到它的。

,11,情态动词的用法

Must he do it ?他必须做? Yes, he must 是的,他必须,No,he needn’t 不,他不需要,=No,he doesn’t have to

Maybe (句首),may be (句中)也许

Maybe you are right 也许你是对的。 You may be right 你也许是对的

May I hug him ?我能拥抱他么?Yes ,he can 是的,他能,No,he can’t 不,他不能

Could you give me a pen =Can you give me a pen ?你能给我一支钢笔么?

Imight(may的过去式)help you 我有可能帮助你

,12,定语从句:从句在复合句中充当定语

连接词:人用(who),whom(宾语),(连接词替代从句中的内容),

物用which(主语和宾语),that用在人和物,宾语全部要省略

不定代词和最高级在修饰先行词时,必须用that

Whose 用在定语时,后面是名词,地点出现介词+名词(介宾结构)要用where

时间出现介词+名词(介宾结构)要用when

I see a man who is tall 我看见一个高高的男人

I see a man whom /that(省略) you are talking with 我看见一个和你聊天的男人

I see a table that /which is clean我看见一张干净的桌子。

I see a table which/that(省略) you are cleaning 我看见一张你在清扫的桌子

I know a school which/that(省略) you visited last year 我知道一个你去年拜访过的学校

You visited the school

主谓宾

The only thing that you have to do is reading 你不得不做得唯一一件事情就是阅读

The best man that is tall can speak English 那个高高的男人能说英语

I know a school where you studied 我知道一个你学习过的学校

=I know a school in which you studied

You studied in the school

主语谓语(状语,介词加名词,介宾结构)

I know a day when we met =I know a day on which we met 我知道我们相遇的一天

We met on the day

主语谓语(状语,介词加名词,介宾结构)

13,动词不定式:

It is good to speak English 说英语是很好的

(主语)

My work is to help you我的工作就是去帮助你

(表语)

I want to help you我想要帮助你

(宾语)

I ask you to read books 我叫你去阅读书籍

(补语)

I have something to eat我有一些吃的东西

(定语)

,14,动名词

Reading is good for us阅读对我们是很好的

(主语)

My work is reading,now我的工作现在就是阅读书籍

(表语)

I stop watching TV我停止观看电视

(宾语)

It is an exciting movie 它是一部令人兴奋的电影

(定语)